Migration control functions are increasingly being delegated to private actors, a phenomenon which particularly affects stateless persons. This report discusses two forms this takes. First, there is explicit delegation, through contracts with private actors to carry out roles that would otherwise be fulfilled by the state. This includes using information management companies in the processing of visa claims, and private security companies in the management of migration detention and border security. The second sort of delegation is implicit. This involves placing sanctions upon private actors in their dealings with migrants. While there are many forms of this type of delegation, this report focuses on carrier sanctions. It identifies an increasing privatization of migration control functions and asks what are its impacts on the most vulnerable migrants, particularly stateless persons and potential refugees. When migration control functions are delegated in this way, the line of responsibility for decisions and actions can be obscured. This report examines emerging measures in this area and concludes with some policy recommendations.
The full report is available here.