This research project focused on the challenges that repatriation and reintegration pose to different actors (government bodies, international organizations and NGOs) and individuals in Burundi. Burundi currently finds itself at a crossroad, recovering from a long period of conflict and moving towards economic recovery and development. During this transition phase Burundi has welcomed more than 500,000 former refugees, mostly coming from neighboring country Tanzania, back home. The return of these former refugees puts additional pressure on Burundi’s scarce resources such as land. In addition, the reintegration process is challenging due to structural problems of poverty, unemployment and lack of infrastructure. As a result of the current transition phase, in which Burundi is changing its status from a post-conflict country that receives vast amounts of humanitarian aid to a developing country, several international organizations and international NGOs are slowly withdrawing their activities in the country. The first question was whether or not the repatriation and especially the reintegration of Burundians that lived abroad was successful. The second question was how the transition from humanitarian aid to develop affects both repatriates and residents in their communities.